Bankruptcy is a federal legal status of a person in debt or other entity that is not able to repay the debts it owes to their creditors. In many jurisdictions, bankruptcy is imposed by an order of the court, often initiated by the debtor.
Bankruptcy, however, is not the only legal status that a person in debt or other entity may have, and when we say bankruptcy, it isn't synonym for insolvency. In the United States, bankruptcy is applied more broadly to formal insolvency proceedings.
Federal student loans are loans that must be repaid, plus an agreed upon interest rate. New federal student loans are run through the Federal Direct Loan Program (FDLP). An FDLP student loan is originally borrowed from or currently owned by the Department of Education. Any federal student loan borrowed after June 2010 are FDLP loans, though the barrower of the student loan could receive FDLP loans before that time.